IL-4 and IL-13 signaling
contribute to type 2
inflammation in
atopic dermatitis1-5

A number of immune cells are involved in type 2
inflammation and produce type 2 cytokines, including1,6,7

ILC2 cell
Th2 cell
Mast cell

IL-4 and IL-13 signaling act on these immune cells to
perpetuate type 2 inflammation1-4

IL-4 signaling drives
the differentiation and expansion of Th2 cells1

IL-4 signaling promotes ILC2 proliferation8,a

a A role for IL-13 in ILC2 proliferation has yet to be established or excluded.

IL-4 and IL-13 signaling promote mast cell proliferation3

IL-4 and IL-13 signaling can
affect molecules that control
eosinophil trafficking to areas
of inflammation1

IL-4 and IL-13 signaling promote IgE production via B cells, inducing the IgE-dependent activation of mast cells and basophils, and release of type 2 cytokines and other inflammatory mediators1,9,10

IL-4 and IL-13 are key mediators of inflammatory pathways that may
impact other inflammatory mediators, such as IL-31 and IgE, helping
set in motion the chronic underlying inflammation in atopic dermatitis.1,9,10

ILC, innate lymphoid cell.

References: 1. Gandhi NA, Bennett BL, Graham NMH, Pirozzi G, Stahl N, Yancopoulos GD. Targeting key proximal drivers of type 2 inflammation in disease. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016;15(1):35-50. 2. Bao K, Reinhardt RL. The differential expression of IL-4 and IL-13 and its impact on type-2 immunity. Cytokine. 2015;75(1):25-37. 3. McLeod JJ, Baker B, Ryan JJ. Mast cell production and response to IL-4 and IL-13. Cytokine. 2015;75(1):57-61. 4. Wynn TA. Type 2 cytokines: mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015;15(5):271-282. 5. Rerknimitr P, Otsuka A, Nakashima C, Kabashima K. The etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis: barrier disruption, immunological derangement, and pruritus. Inflamm Regen. 2017;37:14. 6. Annunziato F, Romagnani C, Romagnani S. The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(3):626-635. 7. Gause WC, Wynn TA, Allen JE. Type 2 immunity and wound healing: evolutionary refinement of adaptive immunity by helminths. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013;13(8):607-614. 8. Kim BS, Wang K, Siracusa MC, et al. Basophils promote innate lymphoid cell responses in inflamed skin. J Immunol. 2014;193(7):3717-3725. 9. Mukai K, Tsai M, Saito H, Galli SJ. Mast cells as sources of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Immunol Rev. 2018;282(1):121-150. 10. Sokol CL, Medzhitov R. Role of basophils in the initiation of Th2 responses. Curr Opin Immunol. 2010;22(1):73-77.